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Wednesday, February 23, 2011

Tajuk 94: Contoh PROBLEM STATEMENT 1

Satu masalah utama dalam BAB 1 adalah penulisan Pernyataan Masalah. Pelajar sering gagal menyatakan apakah sebenarnya masalah yang dikaji sehingga tidak meyakinkan keperluan kajian tersebut dijalankan. Sukar untuk mengajar bagaimana membuat pernyatan masalah kecuali dengan memberikan contoh yang sesuai.
Hidup jangan cari masalah


Berikut saya sertakan contoh pernyataan masalah. Sila perhatikan ayat yang bergaris.....

Kajian 1

EFFECTIVE CLINICAL TEACHING AMONGST NURSE TEACHERS IN TERENGGANU NURSING COLLEGES
By: 
Ong Swee Leong & Othman Talib (2009)

Problem Statement
The quality of nursing care has been debated since at least the 1980s. An extensive literature and research reports describe a variety of interventions and methods to improve the quality of care (Kristina & Marita, 2001). These include polish the education system, particularly the clinical practice.  Lee (1996) said that although clinical education has been acknowledged as being the 'heart' of all nursing education programs, but the role of the clinical nurse teachers in relation to the clinical learning experience of the student nurse is still an area of long-standing confusion and dispute. This unresolved problem has led to the lack of a concerted effort in the provision of educational input in the clinical area and the quality of patient care is indirectly being affected.

To cater the changing need, unqualified and unprepared clinical nurse teachers had been appointed to teach in the clinical area and this will influence the outcome of learning activity in the clinical area (Lee et al 2002).  Therefore to ensure the learning in clinical area is at the maximum patch the effectives of clinical nurse teacher much be carefully consider.  Further more since the beginning of the nursing education there has been a perceived discrepancy between what is taught to student nurses in the classroom and what is practiced in the clinical area.  This condition will make the clinical teaching become more difficult and more complicated because as what had been claimed by  Aston, Mallik, Day and Fraser (2000) in their study explored the role of teacher/lecturer in practice found that despite overt commitment the lecturers were also unprepared, unsupported and unmonitored. 

Students and clinical nurse teachers had very different experiences and expressed a strong need for a better organized approach which would provide them with consistent and sustained support in the clinical setting by effective clinical nurse teacher. The Australian Nurse Education National Report (Reid, 1994), reported new graduates lacked competence when undertaking clinical work and their perceived lack of competence led to under-valuation of undergraduate nursing programs and claims that despite having satisfied registration requirements, graduates were not adequately prepared for clinical practice. According to three heads of Malaysian Nursing schools, this phenomenon is evidenced greatly among their students. Therefore, the role of clinical nurse teachers must be negotiated seriously between teachers, clinical nurses and students, in order to find the best way to meet the needs of all parties concerned (Mark and Brain 2006).  As what had been reported by Mei Kuen (1997) clinical teaching behavior is a critical determinant for quality clinical learning experiences of student nurses. It is believed that a better understanding of the perceptions of clinical teaching behaviors between student nurses and clinical nurse teachers will enhance clinical teaching. Therefore there is a must in exploring the effectiveness of clinical nurse teacher. 

Clinical teaching and learning has been recognized as one of the most important and necessary parts of any educational process in nursing. However, as a large number of students have to be taught in a wide range of clinical areas where teaching and supervision by nursing staff is not possible, because of their shortage (Kotzabassaki, 1997), many clinical nurse teachers are required which makes clinical teaching very costly. Due to scarce with financial resources, the number of clinical nurse teachers is not adequate. Unlike Malaysia, clinical nurse teachers are much needed in the service side hence scarcity is not due to lack of financial but allocation of tasks.

With the current nursing shortage and the increased number of students need experiences, the nurses without formal supervisory training and/or without extensive clinical experience will be assigned as clinical  nurse teacher  Then this could lead to clinically incompetent students graduating from the program and caring our sick out there.  Therefore, if the quality of clinical education is to be maintained, clinical nurse teachers must be as effective as perceived by the clinical students.


OT


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