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Tuesday, July 7, 2015

Tajuk 767: Citation in LR - Bezakan STRONG dan GENERAL statement.

Pertama: Strong Statement (by author): 
Ini contoh "strong statement" yang wajib ada citation. Perkataan "..." adalah indikator strong statement. Selalunya tanpa citation akan di soal - how do you know? Who say so?
a. Based on constructivist point of view, A (2006) “developed” a conceptual change model which emphasizes conditions to be met in order for students to experience conceptual change.
b. B (1999) “defined” animation as a process of moving and changing any object on the computer screen to replicate a simulation of a theoretical evolving process, event or phenomenon.
c. C (2010) for example, “commented” that the cognitive conflict must first be meaningful to students, generated by the students‟ motivation, curiosity to know, and adequate reasoning abilities
Kedua: Strong Statement (by idea):
Selalunya ada perkataan berbentuk quantify sesuatu spt "more than"... "some of.." "better than..." atau specific word merujuk kepada specific idea (spt ayat b.)
a. “Some of these” misconceptions can easily be revised or restructured, but “some are highly resistant” to change especially if they provide satisfactory interpretations to the students (C, 2007)
b. Science educators and researchers have examined how concepts are “exchanged” (D, 2002), “restructured” (F, 2004), and “enriched” (G, 2008) individually and socially.
c. It is “better” to present animation and live explanation from the instructor simultaneously in order to enhance students‟ conceptual change and deeper understanding (H, 2009) .
d. Animations are “suitable” to present scientific concepts because they can bridge students’ existing ideas with the new information (K, 2015)
Ketiga: General statement - tak yah citation !
General statement cam bawah ni kalau ada yang tanya.... How do you know that? jawab jer "That is a common scenario, everyone in my field knows that ... "
a. The increasing availability of advanced developer-friendly authoring software has enabled the use of computers as an alternative constructivist medium for teaching and learning science
b. Students often use the Internet to access extra information about subject contents.
c. The incorporation of computer-based instruction is an increasing phenomenon around the world as universities expand their IT facilities.
OT

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