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Wednesday, October 8, 2014

Tajuk 663: 5 langkah menulis latar belakang kajian yang mantap....

Ramai yang menulis latar belakang berdasarkan pembacaan kajian lepas tapi tahu apa sebenarnya keperluan latar belakang. Aku nak kongsi bagaimana menulis latar belakang kajian berdasakan 5 langkah:

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Background of study
1. Sejarah ringkas
2. Perkenal gap 
3. Perkenal argument 
4. Perkenal support / proposes solution / focus kajian 
5. Kenapa kajian anda penting utk dijalankan

Kalau bagi 5 langkah ini tentu tak lengkap tanpa disertakan contoh utk lebih faham. Jadi berikut adalah contoh simple jer yang aku sertakan......

Working Title: Development of computer animation in chemistry using constructivist approach

1.1 Backgorund of study
1 – Sejarah ringkas
Perkenalkan sedikit sejarah “area of investigation” kajian ko in general. Bagi contoh tajuk di atas, kajian adalah berkaitan “teaching and learning in science education”. Tulis ikut urutan event bagi kajian anda.

Malaysia has given a high priority to educational development since independence in 1957. The emphasis on science education started in 1960 in response to reports by the Education Review Committee which called for explicit commitment to improve the quality of science education (citation). In the 1960s, General Science was taught as a compulsory subject at the lower secondary level. Since then, science education in Malaysia has undergone several changes and innovations.

Then in 1969, the MOE through the Curriculum Development Centre adapted the Scottish Integrated Science Syllabus for lower secondary school science (Form I, II and III) to replace the existing General Science subject.

Subsequently, in 1972, the newly-formed Curriculum Development Centre (CDC), introduced new science subjects for Forms IV and V - Modern Physics, Chemistry and Biology which were derived from Nuffield Science materials from England. For upper secondary non-science stream students, the Modern Science subject was introduced in 1974, derived from Nuffield Secondary Science (citation).



2 – Perkenal gap
Tulis mengenai senario situasi semasa berkaitan isu yang dikaji dgn memperkenalkan “gap” dalam “teaching and learning in science education”. Gap disini adalah situasi semasa aplikasi “teaching and learning in science education” yang tertumpu hanya kepada dgn pendekatan “guided-inquiry” melalui experimen sahaja.

The teaching and learning strategies for science subjects which utilized guided-inquiry continued with the implementation of the New Integrated Secondary School Curriculum in 1989, which stressed the development of scientific skills through guided-inquiry activities where students are actively involved in solving and discovering scientific phenomena through investigation (citation).

Therefore in daily practice, guided-inquiry is implemented mostly for doing experiment where the teacher provides the materials and problem for the students to investigate, emphasizing the scientific process skills such as observation and data collection (this is the gap - problem that need to be studied)

3 – Perkenal argument dalam gap
Masalahnya adalah “teaching and learning in science education” dgn guided-inquiry melalui eksperimen di makmal tidak memadai .... maka timbul argument utk memperbaiki keadaan dgn memperkenalkan constructivist learning theory dalampengajaran dan pembelajaran.

Realizing that learning science is more than acquiring science process skills through guided-inquiry activities, it is about time to implement the constructivist learning theory, to highlight the importance of student’s active engagement in constructing personal meaning of the subject matter.

As stressed by author (year), constructivist learning gives emphasis to an active search for meaning and understanding by individual students where they construct deep understanding through social activities and interaction with others. This approach takes into consideration students’ prior knowledge, beliefs and attitudes as well as encourages discussion in order to help them acquire new concepts (citation)

4. Perkenalkan support / proposes solution / focus kajian anda
Perkenal kajian anda untuk mengatasi masalah dalam gap. Fokus kajian ada adalah menguji keberkesanan animasi mengunakan constructivist approach for teaching and learning chemistry.

In the Malaysian educational system, chemistry is taught as one of the core single subjects and reemphasized at the post secondary level. Basically, it is relatively easy for students to discover simple basic concepts in chemistry through the guided-inquiry approach . An important issue here is how students can understand chemistry concepts because they possess different levels of abstractness (citation).

Therefore, instead of relying the scientific skills through guided-inquiry activities as practised by most chemistry teachers, the focus of this study is to investigate the effectiveness using animation based on the constructivist approach to teaching and learning chemistry.

5. Kenapa kajian anda penting utk dijalankan
Dibahagian akhir inilah anda simpulkan betapa pentingnya kajian yang akan anda jalankan..

While computer technologies have the potential to be integrated with the constructivist derived approaches, they also place specific demands on teachers to choose or develop the appropriate computer presentations that facilitate a student’s own understanding through activities and interaction during science classes. For this proposed, research is needed to investigate how to integrate the latest computer technologies within a constructivist mode consistent with the objectives of chemistry education in Malaysia. This is the intention of this study; to design an animation aided constructivist approach to instruction and to test its implementation in the Malaysian context.
Moga menjadi panduan utk di share bersama.... wpun mungkin ada nature kajian2 lain yang berbeza approachnya....


OT

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